DEMONS  OF  ANCIENT  MESOPOTAMIA

 

Endashurimma, Enindashurimma: a porter of hell (viz. Neti)

Endukugga: a porter of hell (viz. Neti)

Endushuba: a porter of hell (viz. Neti)

Ennugigi: a porter of hell (viz. Neti)

Enurulla: a porter of hell (viz. Neti)

Erra, Irra, Irragal: god of pestilence and plague, attended by fourteen disease demons.

Humhummu: underworld deity/demon

Lamashtu: demon besetting childbirth, coming down from her mountain lair.

Lilitu: demon of the destructive storm wind and disturber of night rest through nightmares and erotic dreams; her name was taken from the word lil, meaning wind or wind spirit.  Her image was that of a harpy, with birdlike claws and wings.  Her animals were owls and hyenas.

Namtar, Namtaru: demon of fate and death

Namtartu: spouse of Namtar; she had the head of a kuribu (Heb. cherub, Gk. sphinx)

Neti: chief gatekeeper of hell (Sumerian Meslam, Akkadian Nedu).  He had a lion’s head, a bird’s feet, and human hands.  The other six porters of hell were: Kishar, Endashurimma, Enurulla, Endukuga, Endushuba, and Ennugigi.

Ninkilim: goddess of vermin and mice

Pazuzu: king of the evil wind demons and demon of the southwest wind that brings the disease malaria.  His face was that of a hideous lion; his hands were lion-clawed, and he had the feet and wings of an owl.  He was also shown with the horns of a goat.  His image was used as an amulet protecting against windborne sickness.  A bronze Pazuzu placed on the neck of a woman in childbirth protected her against Lamashtu.

Rabisu: lurking demon lying in wait

Sirrush: dragon in the form of a serpent-griffin

Ushumgalle: monster offspring of Tiamat, the cosmic dragon of the Deep, which spat out fiery poison to blind the beholder or which froze him with a fearsome, serpentine, hypnotic stare.

 

HEBREW  DEMONS

 

Azazel: goat goblin of the wilderness

Tsiyym: prowlers, wild beasts, desert beasts, wildcats, insane men

Ochim: howlers, doleful creatures, jackals

Benoth Ya’anah: devourers, daughters of greed, owls, ostriches

Sairim: satyrs, hairy ones, shaggy devils, he-goats, wild goats, demoniacs

Iyyim: scavengers, island beasts, hyenas, screech owls

Tannim: dragons, serpents, jackals, wolves

Lilith: night-terror, night-hag, nocturnal she-demon, screech owl.  The owl-like vampire was modeled on the Babylonian wind demon Lilitu.

Resheph: Pestilence (Canaanite god of war)

Deber: Plague

 

GREEK  DEMONS

 

Eris: Discord             Deimos: Terror         Phobos: Fear              Limos: Famine