CHRONOLOGY  OF  EGYPT

 

                                                                B.C.**    B.C.***       B.C.****

PRE-DYNASTIC PERIOD

          Nar-mer-za (upper Egypt)              3200

                  (“Striking Catfish”)

 

EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD

     DYNASTY I (Thinis) 2950*                         3400

          Menes: Hor-Ahai (“Hawk Fighter”) 3100                        2920

                  United Egypt

                  Wife, Neith-hotep (“Neith is Appeased”)

          Djer (“Horus Succors”): Zer: Iti

          Wadji (“Horus Cobra”): Djet, Zet

                  Wife, Merneith (“Beloved of Neith”)

          Den (“Horus Strikes”): Udimu: Semti:

              Khasti (Usaphais)

          Anedjib (“Man of Bold Heart”): Enezib:

              Merpubia (Miebis)

          Semerkhet (“Thoughtful Friend”)

          Qa’a (“Raised Arm”): Kaa

 

     DYNASTY II (Thinis) 2800*

          Hetepsekhemwy (Rhampsinitus?)                                2770

                  (“Two Powers at Peace:” Seth-Horus/N-S united)

          Reneb (“Re is Lord”)

          Ninetjer (“Godlike”)

          Peribsen:                         ---Weneg (Memphis king)

              Sekhemib (“Man with Strong Heart”)

          Khasekhem                          ---Sened (Memphis king)

                  (“The Strong - Horus - Crowned”)

              Changed his name to Khasekhemwy

                        (“Two Powers - Horus & Seth - Crowned”)

 

OLD KINGDOM                                    2686

     DYNASTY III (Memphis) 2670*

          Zanakht: Sanakht: Nebka                                        2650

                  (“Strong Protection”)

 

 

 

*Painting, Sculpture And Architecture Of Ancient Egypt by W. Westendorf

**X-Raying The Pharaohs  and Encyclopædia Britannica

***Kings, Rulers and Statesmen by L. F. Wise and E. W. Egan

****Pharaohs And Kings by David M. Rohl (“New Chronology” dates in parentheses)

          Zoser: Djoser: Tosorthros:                            2980       2630

              Netjerykhet (“Divine Body”)

              Architect Yemhatpe: Imhotep: builder of first pyramid,

                   deified as wise physician god (Gk. Imouthes = Asklepios)

          Seris: Kha-sekhemui: Djoserti (?):                           2611

              Sekhemkhet (“Strong Body”)

          Khaba (“Soul Appears”)                                             2603

          Huni (“Smiter”)                                                     2599

 

     DYNASTY IV (Memphis) 2590

          Snefru: Sneferu (“He of Beauty”)                  2920       2575

          Khnumu Khufu: Cheops                               2900       2551

                  (“Guarded by Khnumu”) Khnumu,“ Molder,” was a potter god who, like Ptah,                               molded earth and man.  He was also the god of quarries and of the first cataract                   of the Nile.  Herodotus used name “Cheops.”  Builder of the Great Pyramid.

          Djedefre (“Enduring like Re”):                                2528

              Radjedef: Radadef (“Son of Re”)

          Khafre: Chephren (“Appearing like Re”)                 2520

          Menkaure: Mycerinus                              2800       2490

                  (“Eternal Soul like Re”)

          Shepseskaf (“Noble Soul”)                                         2472

 

     DYNASTY V (Memphis) 2470

          Userkaf: Weserkef (was a priest of Re)         2750       2465

                  (“Strong Soul”)

          Sahure: Sahura, brother of Userkaf                         2458

                  (“Near to Re”)

          Nefererkare: Kakai, brother of Userkaf                    2446

                  (“Beautiful Soul of Re”)

          Shepseskari  (“Noble Soul of Re”): Ini                        2426

          Raneferef: Neferefre (“Beautiful is Re”)                  2419

          Niuserre (“Power of Re”): Izi                                      2416

          Menkauhor (“Eternal Soul of Horus”)                     2396

          Djedkare (“Stable Soul of Re”): Izezi: Isesi                  2388

          Unas: Wenis                                                          2356

 

     DYNASTY VI (Memphis) 2320

          Teti: Teta                                                     2625       2323

          Userkere (“Strong Soul of Re”): Weserkere

          Pepi I Merire (“Beloved of Re”): Pheops  2590       2289

              Vizier: Ptah-hotep (“Ptah is Pleased”)

          Mereme: Merenra II (“Beloved of Re”)                        2255

          Pepi II Neferkere, son of Pepi I                2566       2246

              96 year reign: longest in history

FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD         2181

     DYNASTY VII (The Age of Misrule) 2160                 2150

          Asiatic nomads move into the Delta

 

     DYNASTY VIII (ditto)

 

     DYNASTY IX (Herakleopolis) 2135                                2135

          Kheti: Achthoes                                           2445

 

     DYNASTY X

          Meri-ka-re (“Beloved of the Soul of Re”)

                  Last king of the Tenth Dynasty

 

MIDDLE KINGDOM                         2050

     DYNASTY XI (Thebes) 2040

          Mentuhotep I (“Montu is Pleased”)          2160       2080

          Inyotef I: Antef: Sehertawy                                          2074

          Inyotef II: Wahankh                                                    2064

          Inyotef III: Nakhtnebtepnefer                                      2015

          Mentuhotep II: Netjerihedjet                     2061       2007

          Mentuhotep III: S’ankhtawyef (“Life to Two Lands”) 1956

          Mentuhotep IV                                                      1944

                  His Vizier, Amenemhet, later king.

          Mentuhotep V

 

     DYNASTY XII (Memphis) 1991                                     (1700)

          Amenemhet I (“Amon at the Head”):           2000       1937

              Sehetepibre (“He Appeases the Heart of Re”)

                  Most opulent period in Egyptian history.

                  Put down rebellion of nobles.

                  Wrote wise sayings (proverbs) for his son.

          Senusert: Sesostris: Kheperkare               1970       1917

                  (“Son of Usert,” Earth Goddess)

                  Built canal from Nile River to Red Sea.

                  “Tale of Senuhe” by Sinuhet (“Son of the Sycamore”).

                  Hittites first mentioned.

                  Semites move to Egypt (Abraham?)

          Amenemhet II: Nubkaure                         1938       1875

          Sesostris II: Khakheperre                         1903       1842

          Sesostris III: Khakaure                                 1887       1836

                  Began subjugation of Palestine.

          Amenemhet III: Nimaatre: Pera-marres      1849       1817

          Amenemhet IV: Maakherure                     1801       1772

          Sebek-neferu-re: Neferusobek (Princess)  1792       1763

SECOND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD    1786

     Land invaded by Hyksos, “Shepherds,” in horse-drawn chariots in 1786.

            “Hyksos” from Hekaw-khasut (“Chiefs of Foreign Lands”)

            Hyksos god Seth equivalent to Canaanite Resheph and Hittite Teshub.

 

     DYNASTY XIII (Weak Egyptian kings ruling in Memphis)

          Khutawyre: Wegaf                                                 1632

          Sekhemkare                                                           1630

          Amenemhet V                                                            1619

          Sehetepibre                                                                1616

          Iufne                                                                          1611

          Sankhibre                                                                   1606

          Smenkhkare                                                           1601

          Sehetepibre                                                                1596

          Sewadkjkare                                                          1591

          Nedjemib-re                                                           1586

          Sobekhotep I (“Pleasing to Sobek”)                            1581

          Renseneb                                                                   1579

          Awibre-hor                                                            1578

          Sedjef-kare                                                                 1573

          Sebekhotep II                                                             1568

          Userkare (“Strong Soul of Re”): Khendjer                   1563

          Smenkhkare Mermesha                                               1558

          Inyotef IV                                                                  1553

          Sobekhotep III                                                           1543

          Neferhotep I: Up-Maat (“Truth Separator”)   1696  1540

          Sihathor                                                                     1530

          Sobekhotep IV                                                 1685  1529

          Sobekhotep V Khahotepre                                1678  1508

          Wahibre: Iayib                                             1674  1503

          Merneferre (“Love Beautiful of Re”): Ay       1664  1493

 

     Archbishop Ussher’s date for the Exodus: 1491

 

          Sobekhotep VI: Merhotepre                                   1470

          Sankhre-ense-wadjtu                                                   1469

          Mersekhemre Ined                                                 1467

          Hori                                                                           1464

          Sobekhotep VII                                                          1459

          (4 unknown rulers)                                                 1457

          Dedumesiu: Dudimose: Tutimaos                                1448

 

 

     DYNASTY XIV 1715

          Neshi: Nehesy

          Sheshi

 

     DYNASTY XV (Hyksos) 1650

          Salatis: Shalek: Sheshi                                            1633

          Yakubhor: Yaqub-baal: Jacob-Baal: Bnon               1606

          Khyan: Ianias: Apachnan

          Apepa: Apepi I Au-ser-re (“Great Strong Re”): Apophis

                  Contemporary of Inyotef VII

                  Peaceful relations with Thebes until time of Tao II

          Apepi II: Aazehre: Asseth: Assis: Khamudy

 

Eruption of the Thera volcano in 1628: Atlantis legend and Hebrew Exodus (?)

 

     DYNASTY XVI (Hyksos, contemporary with Dynasties 15 & 17)

          Anather

          Yakobaam

          Apepi III

 

     DYNASTY XVII, Early (Thebes)

          Rehotep Wahankh                                                      1606

          Inyotef V

          Inyotef VI

          Sobekemsaf II

          Inyotef VII

 

NEW KINGDOM                                   1600

     DYNASTY XVII, Late

          Khayan

          Ta’a (“The Old”) Tao I: Senakhtenre Tao: Tetisheri

          Tao II: Seqenenre Tao: Ahhotep I

                  Father of Ahmose; fought the Hyksos

          Kamose: Wadjkheperre (“Flourishing Image of Re”)

 

     DYNASTY XVIII (Thebes) 1550

          Ahmose: Amasis I (not circumcised)        1570       1580       1539 (1200)

                  (“Born of Ah,” the Moon God)

                  Defeated the Hyksos and re-conquered Nubia

          Amenhotep I (not circumcised)           1546       1557       1514

                  (“Amen is Satisfied”) Ram God Amen: Ammon: “The Hidden One”

          Thutmosis: Thotmes I               1526       1540       1493

                  (“Born of Thoth”) Wisdom God

                  Expanded empire from Nubia to Syria

          Thutmosis II                                  1512       1505       1481

          Hat-shepsut (Queen Regent)      1503       1501       1479

                  (“Foremost of Noble Ladies”)

          Thutmosis III                                1482                      1458

                  Strengthened the empire.

          Amenhotep II                                1450       1447       1427

          Thutmosis IV                                1425       1420       1392

          Amenhotep III                               1417       1411       1382

          Amenhotep IV (Akhnaton)             1379       1375       1352

                  Established monotheistic worship of the God Aten, “Sun Disk.”

                  Old religion restored after his death.

          Smenkhare: Sakere                    1362       1358       1337

                  (“Vigorous Soul of Re”)

          Tutankhamon                                1361       1357       1336

                  (“Living Image of Amon”)

          Aye: Eje (Queen)                           1352       1351       1327

 

     DYNASTY XIX (Memphis, then Tanis) 1305

          Horemheb (“Horus in Joy”)           1348       1350       1323

          Ramses I                                  1320       1315       1295 (970)

          Setekh I: Seti: Sethos                     1318       1313       1294

                  (“Set is Majesty”)

                  Seti retook Canaan (“the Nine Bows”) and Libya.

                  Made a treaty with the Hittite king Muwatallis.

          Ramses II, the Great                      1304       1292       1279

                  Greatest builder of monuments.

                  Repelled an invasion of “the Sea Peoples.”

                  Defeated king Muwatallis in Battle of Qadesh in 1275.

                  Traditional Pharaoh of the Exodus.

                  Fall of Jericho dates to c. 1250.

          Merenptah (“Beloved of Ptah”) 1236       1225       1213

                  Repelled an invasion of “the Sea Peoples”

          Amenmeses                                   1222                      1203

          Seti II                                       1216       1215       1200

          Siptah: Siptak (rival) (club foot)       1209       1215       1194

                  (“Son of Ptah”)

          Tausert: Twosre (Queen)                                       1188

                  (“Mighty Lady”)

 

     DYNASTY XX (Tanis) 1190

          Setnakhte (“Victorious Seth”)        1200       1198       1186

          Ramses III Usermaatre                   1198       1198       1184

                  Repelled a great invasion of “the Sea Peoples.”

                  They included the Libu tribe which settled “Libya”

                  and the Philistines (Peleset) which settled “Palestine.”

          Ramses IV Heqamaatre                  1166       1167       1153

          Ramses V Usermaatre               1160       1161       1147

          Ramses VI Nebmaatre                   1156                      1143

          Ramses VII Usermaatre                 1148                      1136

          Ramses VIII Usermaatre           1147                      1129

          Ramses IX Neferkhare                   1140       1142       1126

          Ramses X Khepermaatre           1121                      1108

          Ramses XI Menmaatre                   1113                      1099

          Ramses XII                                                 1118

 

     DYNASTY XXI                                               1090

          At Tanis  1070                 At Thebes   1085

          Smendes          1069       Herihor (priest) 1080

          Amenemnisu     1043       Piankh                   1074

          Psusennes        1039       Pinudjem I             1070

          Amenemopet      993       Masahert          1054

          Osorkon             984       Djedkhonsefankh   1046

          Siamun               978       Menkheperre         1045

          Har-Psusennes    959       Smendes II              992

                                                Pinudjem II         990

                                                Psusennes III           969

 

     DYNASTY XXII (Libyan in Bubastis)            945

          Shoshenk I: Sheshonq: Shishak                                     945

                  Despoiled Solomon’s Temple in 925 (1 Ki. 14:25-26).

          Osorkon I Sekhemkheperre (“Strong Image of Re”)      924

          Shoshenk II Heqakheperre (“Ruling Image of Re”)   890

          Takelot I Usermaatre (“Powerful Truth of Re”)         889

          Osorkon II Usermaatre                                                 874

          Harsiese                                                                       870

          Takelot II Hedjkheperre (“Bright Image of Re”)        850

          Shoshenk III Usermaatre                                          825

          Pami: Pimay Usermaatre                                           773

          Shoshenk V Aakheperre (“Great Image of Re”)        767

          Osorkon IV Aakheperre                                                730

 

     DYNASTY XXIII (Tanis) 810                             745

          Pedibastet Usermaatre                                              818

          Iuput I                                                                          804

          Shoshenk IV Usermaatre                                          793

          Osorkon III Usermaatre                                                787

          Takelot III Usermaatre                                                  764

          Rudamun Usermaatre                                               757

          Iuput II Usermaatre                                                       754

          Shoshenk VI                                                                720

 

     DYNASTY XXIV (Sais) 730

          Tefnakht: Shepsesre                                                     727

          Bakenranef: Bocchoris: Wahkare of Sais    718         720

 

     DYNASTY XXV (Kushite: Nubian: Ethiopian rulers in Thebes) 750

          Alara                                                                       780

          Kashta: Maatre                                                         760

          Piankhy: Piye: Usermaatre: Sneferre                               747

          Sabaka: Shabaka: Neferkare (2 Ki. 17:4)     712         716

          Sabataka: Djedkaure                                       700         702

          Taharqa: Tirhaka (Isa. 37:9)                       688         690

          Tantamani: Bakare                                                   664

              Nubians driven out by Assyrian army in 660.

 

     DYNASTY XXVI (Sais) 664

          Ameris (Nubian governor)                                             715

          Tefnakht II (an Egyptian ruling in Sais)                          695

          Bocchoris (contemporary of Hezekiah)

          Taharqa: Nekauba                                                    688

          Necho I: Menkheperre (Assyrian vassal)    670                   672

          Psamtek: Psammetichus: Wahibre                   663         664

                  Assyrians withdraw in 656.

          Nechau: Necho II: Wehemibre (2 Ki. 23:30)  609            610

                  Killed Hebrew king Josiah in battle.

                  Egyptians defeated by Babylonians at Carchemish in 605.

          Psamtek II: Neferibre                                 593         595

          Wahibre: Apries: Haaibre: Hophra (Jer. 64:30) 588           589

          Ahmosi: Amasis II: Khnemibre                   569         570

          Psamtek III: Ankh-kare (“Life Soul of Re”)  525       526

                  Defeated by Persian king Cambyses

 

     DYNASTY XXVII (Persian)

          Egypt under Persian domination                 523

      (Cambyses II, Darius, Xerxes, Artaxerxes, Darius II, Artaxerxes II)

 

     DYNASTY XXVIII (Sais)

          Amyrtaios: Amyrtæus                                              404

                  Persians expelled in 404

 

 

 

 

     DYNASTY XXIX (Mendes)

          Nefeuret: Nepherites                                                     398

          Hakor: Achoris                                                        396

          Nefeuret II

 

     DYNASTY XXX (Sebennytos)

          Nekhtebef: Nectanebo                                              379

          Djedhor: Tachos: Teos

          Nekhtharheb

 

     DYNASTY XXXI (Second Persian Period)                       343

            Persians re-invade in 343 and rule for 11 years.

            (Artaxerxes III, Arses, Darius III)

            Alexander the Great conquers Egypt in 332.

 

     PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY

          Egypt under Greek domination                   332

     Ptolemy I, Soter                                                  323

            Manetho, c. 305-246, priest-historian, first to define 30 dynasties.

     Ptolemy II, Philadelphus                                 285

            Established the great Library of Alexandria.

            Sponsored the Septuagint translation (Greek Old Testament).

     Ptolemy III, Euergetes                                    247

     Ptolemy IV, Philopator                                        221

     Ptolemy V, Epiphanes                                    203

     Ptolemy VI, Philometor                                       180

     Ptolemy VII, Euergetes                                       144

     Ptolemy VIII, Lathyrus                                        117

     Ptolemy IX, Alexander                                        108

     Berenike (Queen)                                                   81

     Ptolemy X, Alexander                                       81

     Ptolemy XI, Auletes                                               81

     Ptolemy XII                                                      51

     Cleopatra VII (Queen)                                           51

     Ptolemy XIII, brother of Cleopatra                    47

     Ptolemy XIV, Cæsarion, son of Cleopatra              44

 

EGYPT UNDER ROME                                       30 B.C.

 

EGYPT UNDER ARABS                                      640 A.D.